Dr. Palleschi
  Office Policies
    &  Procedures
  Contact Us
  Male Infertility
  Vasectomy Reversal


Anti-sperm Antibodies antibodies found in men or women which impair the function of sperm.
ART stands for Assisted Reproductive Technology; The process of producing a pregnancy by fertilizing an ovum outside the female and emplaning the fertilized embryos.
Azoospermia complete absence of sperm from the semen.
Cryopreservation a method of sperm preservation for later use.
Cystoscopy an internal examination of the urinary bladder usually performed under local anesthesia in the office. Commonly performed to evaluate patients with blood in the urine, difficulty with urination, or a history of bladder cancer.
Dihydrotestosterone a potent male hormone derived from the conversion of testosterone by an enzyme known as 5-alpha-reductase. Dihydrotestosterone is primarily responsible for the development of BPH.
DRE stands for digital rectal examination. Palpation of the prostate usually recommended for all men annually beginning at age 50.
Ejaculatory Duct a small tube found in the prostate formed by the union of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory duct travels through the prostate into the urethra.
Epididymis a delicate convoluted tubule with an inner diameter of 0.2 mm connecting the semeniferous tubules of the testis with the lower end of the vas deferens. If the epididymal tubule were straight it would be 14 ft. long, but it is folded on itself and extends only the length of the testicle.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) a hormone secreted into the blood stream from the pituitary gland which stimulates the production of sperm within the semeniferous tubules of the testicles.
Infertility the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection a technique of assisted reproduction in which an ovum is fertilized by injecting a single sperm using micro puncture techniques.
Leydig Cells cells within the semeniferous tubules of the testicles which produce testosterone.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) a hormone secreted into the blood stream from the pituitary gland which stimulates the production of testosterone by the leydig cells of the testicles.
MESA (Micro-epididymal Sperm Aspiration) the technique of obtaining sperm surgically from an epididymal tubule using an operating microscope. The sperm are then usually used for Intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Oligospermia a sperm concentration in the semen of less than 20 million per cc.
Patency Rate the percentage of men who experience return of sperm to the ejaculate following a vasectomy reversal.
PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) the technique of obtaining sperm ‘non-surgically’ by withdrawing them through a fine needle placed through the scrotal skin into the epididymis.
Pituitary Gland a gland located in the brain which is responsible for the production of a number of hormones, two of which, LH and FSH, play an important role in maintaining normal fertility.
Post-coital Test a test of the interaction of sperm and cervical mucus. The post-coital test is performed by examining the cervical mucus under a microscope following sexual intercourse.
Pregnancy Rate the percentage of women who achieve a pregnancy after a vasectomy reversal has been performed in their spouses.
Semeniferous Tubules the microscopic tubules in the testicles in which sperm are produced.
Sperm Granuloma scar tissue in the epididymis caused by leakage of sperm and resulting in obstruction of the flow of sperm through the epididymis; a "blowout."
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) the technique of obtaining sperm by extracting them from the testicle using a fine needle.
TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) a technique of obtaining sperm by performing a testicular biopsy.
Testicular Biopsy removal of a small piece of testicular tissue through a scrotal incision; the tissue may be used to extract sperm for ICSI.
Testosterone a hormone produced by the testicles and adrenal glands of normal men resulting in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics.
Undescended Testicle(s) medical term is cryptorchidism; failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum at birth; occurs in approximately 3 percent of male infants; can be associated with infertility and testicular cancer.
Varicocele a collection of engorged scrotal veins, usually on the left side, sometimes resulting in male infertility due to increased temperature.  Varicoceles occur in 15% of all males and up to 40% of infertile males.
Vaso-epididymostomy a vasectomy reversal in which the upper (bladder) end of the vas deferens is connected to the epididymal tubule.
Vaso-vasostomy a vasectomy reversal in which the two severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected.